(This article was reprinted in the online magazine of the Institute for Ethics & Emerging Technologies, January 19, 2106.)
If you are distressed by anything external, the pain is not due to the thing itself, but to your estimate of it; and this you have the power to revoke at any moment. ~ Marcus Aurelius
Statue of Marcus Aurelius on horseback.
Marcus Aurelius (121 – 180 AD) was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180, and is considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. What today we call the Meditations take the form of a personal notebook; they weren’t intended for publication and he called them “Writings To Myself.” They were written in Greek, even though his native tongue was Latin, and were probably composed while Marcus was on military campaigns in central Europe, c. AD 171-175. He died, most likely from the plague or cancer, on a military campaign in present day Austria. The work is divided into 12 short books.
In Book I Aurelius thanks those to whom he is indebted. He thanks his grandfather for teaching him to be candid, modest, and even-tempered; his father for teaching him to be humble, calm, and frugal; his mother for teaching him to be generous and non-materialistic; and his teachers who taught him the value of hard work, self-discipline, equanimity, rationality, humor, and tolerance. From his teachers he also learned to love practical philosophy, instead of metaphysics, logic and the vanity of the Sophists. He also thanks his wife for being affectionate.
In Book II Aurelius reminds us that each day we will meet some terrible people. But we have faults too, so we shouldn’t be angry with them. For we are all just bits of blood, bones and breath. Life is fleeting; our bodies will decay. As for death, it is nothing to fear; it can’t hurt us. But the most important part of us is our minds. We shouldn’t let them be slaves to selfish passions, quarrel with fate, or be anxious of the present or afraid of the future. We can’t guarantee fame or fortune, but we can keep our minds calm and free from injury, a state superior to pleasure and pain. Freedom is the control of our minds.
In Book III Aurelius tells us to be mindful of little things like cracks in a loaf of bread, the texture of figs and olives, and the expressions of wild animals—everyday things have charm. But we shouldn’t gossip, or speculate about what others say or do. Instead think and talk only of things you would not be ashamed if they were found out. Think and talk with sincerity and cheerfulness and there will be a kind of divinity within you. There is nothing more valuable than a mind pursuing truth, justice, temperance, fortitude, rationality and the like. So be resolute in pursuit of the good.
In Book IV Aurelius tells us that we can always find solitude in our own minds. And if our minds are serene, we will find peace and happiness there. As for how others view us we have little control. But virtuous things are still virtuous whether or not they are praised. Remember our lives are ephemeral, one day we live, the next we are dead. So act virtuous, use your time well, and be cheerful. Then, when you drop from life’s tree, you will drop like a ripe fruit.
In Book V Aurelius says we should get up each morning and do good. This includes acting naturally, unconcerned about the reproach of others. And if you do good deeds don’t ask for payment or gratitude. Be satisfied with acting like a vine that bears good fruit.
In Book V Aurelius disavows revenge—better not to imitate injury. Do your duty, act righteously and be not disturbed by the rest, for in the vastness of space and time we are insignificant. Think of good things and control your mind.
In Book VII Aurelius advocates patience and tolerance. Nature works like wax, continually transforming—so be patient. People will speak ill of you no matter what you do, but be tolerant. Evil people try our patience and tolerance, but we can remain happy by controlling our response to them.
In Book VIII Aurelius argues that being disconnected from humanity is like cutting off one of your own limbs. Instead, live connected to nature and other people. No matter what you encounter maintain a moderate and controlled mind. If you are cursed by others, don’t let it affect you anymore than your cursing the spring affects the springtime.
In Books IX, X and XI Aurelius argues that we should be moderate, sincere, honest, and calm. If someone reports that you are not virtuous, dispel such notions with your probity, and use good humor to disarm the worst people.
In Books XII Aurelius asks why we love ourselves best, but so often value the opinion of others over our own. This is a mistake. Remember too that the destiny of the greatest and worst of human beings is the same—they all turn to ashes. Do not then be proud, but be humble. Die in serenity. As Aurelius wrote from his tent, far from home and never to return: “Life is warfare and a stranger’s sojourn, and after fame, oblivion.”
Reflections – I have more to learn about Stoicism, Buddhism and other practical philosophies. But I think there is a hunger today for practical philosophies of life, especially in a modern world where religious stories no longer provide comfort to so many. Tomorrow I’ll continue this investigation by talking about the point of philosophy. Shortly thereafter I’d like to discuss Admiral James Stockdale on how Epictetus helped him endure more than seven years as a prisoner of war.