Marcus Aurelius: A Brief Summary of The Meditations

Statue of Marcus Aurelius on horseback.

If you are distressed by anything external, the pain is not due to the thing itself, but to your estimate of it; and this you have the power to revoke at any moment.~ Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius (121 – 180 AD) was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180 and is one of the most important Stoic philosophers. What today we call the Meditations take the form of a personal notebook, which wasn’t intended for publication. Aurelius called them “Writings To Myself.” They were written in Greek, although his native tongue was Latin, and were probably composed while he was on military campaigns in central Europe, c. AD 171-175. Today it is widely regarded as one of the most important works in all of Western literature. He died, most likely from the plague or cancer, on a military campaign in present-day Austria. The work is divided into 12 short books.

In Book I Aurelius thanks those to whom he is indebted. He thanks his grandfather for teaching him to be candid, modest, and even-tempered; his father for teaching him to be humble, calm, and frugal; his mother for teaching him to be generous and non-materialistic; and his teachers who taught him the value of hard work, self-discipline, equanimity, rationality, humor, and tolerance. From his teachers, he also learned to love practical philosophy, instead of metaphysics, logic and the vanity of the Sophists. He also thanks his wife for being affectionate.

In Book II Aurelius reminds us that each day we will meet some terrible people. But we have faults too, so we shouldn’t be angry with them. For we are all just bits of blood, bones, and breath; our life is fleeting; our bodies will decay. As for death, it is nothing to fear; it can’t hurt us. But what is most important about us is our minds. We shouldn’t let them be slaves to selfish passions, quarrel with fate, or be anxious about the present or afraid of the future. We can’t guarantee fame or fortune, but we can keep our minds calm and free from injury, a state superior to both pleasure and pain. Freedom is the control of our minds.

In Book IIAurelius tells us to be mindful of little things like cracks in a loaf of bread, the texture of figs and olives, and the expressions of wild animals—even mundane things have charm he says. But we shouldn’t gossip or speculate about what others say or do. Instead, think and talk only about things you would not be ashamed of if they were found out. Think and talk with sincerity and cheerfulness, and there will be a kind of divinity within you. There is nothing more valuable than a mind pursuing truth, justice, temperance, fortitude, rationality and the like. So be resolute in pursuit of the good.

In Book IV Aurelius tells us that we can always find solitude in our own minds. If our minds are serene, we will find peace and happiness. As for how others view us, we have little control over this. But virtue is still virtue even if it isn’t acknowledged. Remember, our lives are ephemeral, one day we live, the next we are dead. So act virtuous, use your time well, and be cheerful. Then, when you drop from life’s tree, you will drop like a ripe fruit.

In Book V Aurelius says we should get up each morning and do good work. We should act naturally and contribute to society, unconcerned about the reproach of others. And don’t ask or expect payment or gratitude for doing good deeds. Instead, be satisfied with being like a vine that bears good fruit. Virtue is its own reward.

In Book V Aurelius disavows revenge—better not to imitate injury. We should do our duty, act righteously and not be disturbed by the rest, for in the vastness of space and time we are insignificant. Think of good things and control your mind.

In Book VII Aurelius advocates patience and tolerance. Nature works like wax, continually transforming—so be patient. People will speak ill of you no matter what you do, but be tolerant. Evil people try our patience and tolerance, but we can remain happy by controlling our response to them.

In Book VIII Aurelius argues that being disconnected from humanity is like cutting off one of your own limbs. Instead, live connected to nature and other people. No matter what you encounter maintain a moderate and controlled mind. If you are cursed by others, don’t let it affect you any more than your cursing the spring affects the springtime.

In Books IX, X, and XI Aurelius argues that we should be moderate, sincere, honest, and calm. If someone reports that you are not virtuous, dispel such notions with your probity, and use humor to disarm the worst people.

In Books XII Aurelius asks why we love ourselves best, but so often value the opinion of others over our own. This is a mistake. Remember too that the destiny of the greatest and worst of human beings is the same—they all turn to ashes. Do not then be proud, but be humble. Die in serenity. As Aurelius wrote from his tent, far from home and never to return: “Life is warfare and a stranger’s sojourn, and after fame, oblivion.”

Reflections – I want to learn more about Stoicism, Buddhism, and other practical philosophies. I think there is a hunger today for practical philosophies of life, especially in the modern world where religious stories no longer provide comfort to so many. For more on Stoic philosophy see my posts on: Seneca, Cicero, the Stoics on emotions, and how Epictetus helped Admiral James Stockdale endure more than seven years as a prisoner of war.

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20 thoughts on “Marcus Aurelius: A Brief Summary of The Meditations

  1. I read his book
    I think it is exactly the same of Christian values, just you have to replace Gods with Jesus. It explains how the human become more human, it is the aim of our life to live to each other not for our self.

  2. Incredible. Its absolutely astonishing that this man was a Roman Emperor. Difficult to comprehending that someone so cultivated and personally advanced could ascend to the heights of actually ruling the world. I can’t recall learning of another political leader of this caliber, besides perhaps Ghandi.???

  3. Thanks Matthew for your comments. And I agree completely about Marcus Aurelius. Imagine if we had morally and intellectually virtuous leaders. Oh what world this could be!

  4. At an earlier time in my life, I had a brush with stoicism, but it was explained to me inaccurately. I was told that the essence of stoicism was mastering your emotions in the sense that you would be able to repress the “negative” emotions until you no longer experienced them at all. It was suggested that stoicism’s embrace had the power to make one so resolute they wouldn’t shed a tear following the death of a loved one. Understandably so, I rejected the notion at that time.

    Now at a much later time in my life, where the true principles of stoicism could prove to be especially valuable to me, I am rediscovering stoicism in an accurate and thorough manner. I realize now that stoicism isn’t about repressing or extinguishing sadness, but instead accepting all emotion and all feeling as a necessary part of life, but not allowing emotionality to affect who you are or what you actions you take.

    As Marcus puts it,
    “If you are distressed by anything external, the pain is not due to the thing itself, but to your estimate of it; and this you have the power to revoke at any moment.”

    And that is the essence of stoicism. This, I believe, is the path to Enlightenment.

  5. Recently ran into Stoicism after years of secular Buddhist practice. Simply astonished– 500 years apart 2k yrs ago, thousands of miles apart, and completely different civs/cultures–so similar (same?) Systems of thought devoted to implementation -PRACTICE MOMENT BY MOMENT, DAILY!

  6. thanks Jim. And you are correct many similarities between two of the best philosophies in history. JGM

  7. Everyone knows he was a good man, and not all that surprising he wrote ‘Meditations’. In the centuries since Gautama and Christ, many have written similarly– difference is their thoughts were never published.
    Let’s please not make a Roman emperor, who spent so much time as a warrior, out to be Saint Marcus. Merely say he was kinder & gentler than Caligula.

  8. I am just beginning my study of Stoicism and have a practical question. I read the Chinese invented paper in 102 ad but a later, lighter version did not reach Europe until around 383 ad.
    What material did Marcus write his journals on, and are they on display in a museum today?

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