Democritus (center) and Protagoras (right). 17th-century painting by Salvator Rosa.
© Darrell Arnold Ph.D.– (Reprinted with Permission)
(A recent post summarized the views of Protagoras, who is generally regarded as the first and most important Sophist. Here is a brief summary of some other Sophists.) Continue reading Summary of the Sophists
Hobbes and the Social Contract
Moving in western culture from the ancient and medieval periods into the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, we approach modernity. Continue reading Summary of Hobbes’ Political and Ethical Theories
Descartes wants to know what’s true. He begins by doubting everything and argues that knowledge derives from the certainty of the existence of one’s own consciousness and the innate ideas it holds. Continue reading Summary of Modern Philosophy – Descartes to Kant in Two Pages
Summary of Plato’s Apology
The Apology is Plato’s recollection and interpretation of the Trial of Socrates (399 BCE). Continue reading The Trial of Socrates